My best advice on this topic is to just sit down for an hour or so, clicking and changing things, and simply noting the result after refreshing the site. I learned the basics of site editing and back end navigation by playing about in every area of my site and just paying attention to what change behind the scenes did what on the surface.
In the screenshot below: The red box is where you receive notifications. These are comments, updates, plugin notification, etc. You can click on your site name to view the latest published version of your site. The yellow box is where all of your editing tools are. every one of these is a different feature of your site that can be edited so your visitors see exactly what you want them to. The blue box is your user setting, options, and preferences. In here you can customize your settings to your liking. Everything shown in the main section, the ‘dashboard,’ can be customized to show what is most relevant, urgent, or frequently used by you by changing your preferences.
WordPress also has a cool statistics feature to remind you of how your website is doing over time. Click on ‘Stats’ and then ‘Insights.’ This website was relatively new when I took this screenshot, so the information it provides isn’t too exciting yet, but it gives a snapshot of where I have been, and where I am now with regards to traffic, and certain visitor information.
Additionally, WordPress also comes with many built-in tutorials and support sections available to view from the plugins dashboard:
From here, you can find plugins, click on them, and view support sections, FAQs, and tutorials on how to get the most out of them. These are a good tool if you get stuck trying to complete a task.
Video: getting to know the WordPress Dashboard
Thanks to WP Apprentice for the video!